CHECK constraint with User Defined Function in SQL Server
Posted by Prashant on June 25, 2010
This post describes how to use result of an user defined function with CHECK constraint in SQL Server. For demonstration, considered a situation where it is not allowed to insert or update records where calculated age of a person is less than 18 years as per his/her Date of Birth.
So for this first we need to create the function before creating the CHECK constraint. Here is a function which will return age as per the date of birth provided.
/* This function will take Date Of Birth as input parameter, and returns Age in Years to the caller */ CREATE FUNCTION [dbo].[fnGetAge](@DateOfBirth DATETIME) RETURNS SMALLINT AS BEGIN DECLARE @Age SMALLINT SET @Age =(DATEDIFF(YY, @DateOfBirth, GETDATE())- (CASE WHEN GETDATE() >= DATEADD(YY, DATEDIFF(YY, @DateOfBirth, GETDATE()), @DateOfBirth) THEN 0 ELSE 1 END)) RETURN @Age END; GO
Now create a table where CHECK constraint will refer to this function to check if the age of the person meets the required criteria or not (minimum 18 Years in this case).
--Create Customer table CREATE TABLE Customers ( CustID INT IDENTITY(1,1) NOT NULL, CustName VARCHAR(100) NOT NULL, DateOfBirth DATETIME NOT NULL, Email VARCHAR(100), CONSTRAINT pkCustomers PRIMARY KEY(CustID), --Calculate & check if age of customer is atleast 18 Years CONSTRAINT chkCheckAge CHECK(dbo.fnGetAge(DateOfBirth) >= 18) ) GO --Populate table with some sample data. INSERT INTO Customers(CustName, DateOfBirth, Email) VALUES ('ABC','19810726','email@example.com'), ('XYZ','19840510','firstname.lastname@example.org'), ('MNO','19720417','email@example.com') GO --Result Message --(3 row(s) affected)
Now try to insert a record where calculated age is less than 18 years and see what happens.
--Try to insert a record where Age less than 18 Years(as per provided Date of Birth) INSERT INTO Customers(CustName, DateOfBirth, Email) VALUES ('TEST','20010315','firstname.lastname@example.org') GO /* --Error Message Msg 547, Level 16, State 0, Line 2 The INSERT statement conflicted with the CHECK constraint "chkCheckAge". The conflict occurred in database "SQLJourney", table "dbo.Customers", column 'DateOfBirth'. The statement has been terminated. */
As the age does not meet the required criteria in defined CHECK constraint, it doesn’t allow to insert this record to the table.
CHECK constraint evaluates the provided expression while UPDATE operation as well.
You cannot DROP the function till the table (which refers to that function) exists in the database.